even without AF.
The role of
AF progresses even without AF.
The role of 'Second Factor'.
Characters of the Second Factors
Atrial conduction delay and atrial voltage reduction
Atria Remodelling as Consequences of Sustained Obesity (1/2)
over another 36wks.
Mean weight 110kgs.
||Mean weight 60 kgs.
Atria Remodelling as Consequences of Sustained Obesity (2/2)
More fibrosis in obesed sheeps than that of control (8% vs 5%).
the substrate for AF.
Risk Factors and Mechanism of AF
AF & CV
Meta-analysis of 9.6 millions participants showed the association of AF and poor outcomes.
AF & Stroke: A risk factor or risk marker?
- Stroke may occur even without AF being present.
In a substudy from ASSERT,
AF was detected before stroke or SE only in 35%.
- AF patients died of non-stroke related death much more than stroke related death.
the most frequent 2-yr major outcomes of patients with new AF was death; less than 10%
were stroke related.
(Eur Heart J 2016.)
Worse outcomes in permanent and persistent than in paroxysmal AF.
Treating HTN and HF to prevent AF.
FACTORS Management and Goals
for Atrial Fibrillation